Studies about the Dietary Impact on “Free” Glycation Compounds in Human Saliva

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Glycation reactions play a key role in post-translational modifications of amino acids in food proteins. Questions have arisen about a possible pathophysiological role of dietary glycation compounds. Several studies assessed the metabolic fate of dietary glycation compounds into blood and urine, but studies about saliva are rare. We investigated here the dietary impact on salivary concentrations of the individual Maillard reaction products (MRPs) N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), N-ε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline (Pyr), and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1). Quantitation was performed using stable isotope dilution analysis (LC-MS/MS). We describe here, that a low MRP diet causes a significant lowering of salivary levels of Pyr from 1.9 ± 0.4 ng/mL to below the LOD and MG-H1 from 2.5 ± 1.5 ng/mL to 0.7 ± 1.8 ng/mL. An impact on the salivary protein fraction was not observed. Furthermore, salivary Pyr and MG-H1 levels are modified in a time-dependent manner after a dietary intervention containing 1.2 mg Pyr and 4.7 mg MG-H1. An increase in mean salivary concentrations to 1.4 ng/mL Pyr and 4.2 ng/mL MG-H1 was observed within 30–210 min. In conclusion, saliva may be a useful tool for monitoring glycation compound levels by using Pyr and MG-H1 as biomarkers for intake of heated food.


Original languageEnglish
Article number2112
Number of pages13
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0001-8528-6893/work/142256514



  • Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), biomarker, glycation, humans, Maillard reaction, metabolic transit, saliva