Subsequent to the dietary uptake of nitrate/nitrite in combination with acetaldehyde/ethanol, combination effects resulting from the sustained endogenous exposure to nitrite and acetaldehyde may be expected. This may imply locoregional effects in the upper gastrointestinal tract as well as systemic effects, such as a potential influence on endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC). Salivary concentrations of the individual components nitrate and nitrite and acetaldehyde are known to rise after ingestion, absorption and systemic distribution, thereby reflecting their respective plasma kinetics and parallel secretion through the salivary glands as well as the microbial/enzymatic metabolism in the oral cavity. Salivary excretion may also occur with certain drug molecules and food constituents and their metabolites. Therefore, putative combination effects in the oral cavity and the upper digestive tract may occur, but this has remained largely unexplored up to now. In this Guest Editorial, published evidence on exposure levels and biokinetics of nitrate/nitrite/NOx, NOC and acetaldehyde in the organism is reviewed and knowledge gaps concerning combination effects are identified. Research is suggested to be initiated to study the related unresolved issues.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Archives of toxicology|
|Publication status||Published - Jun 2022|
- Acetaldehyde, Combination effects, N-nitroso compounds, Nitrate, Nitrite, Upper gastrointestinal tract, Nitrates/metabolism, Acetaldehyde/metabolism, Humans, Saliva/metabolism, Upper Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism, Nitroso Compounds/metabolism, Nitrites/metabolism