To carry out risk assessments of benzophenone-type UV filters (BPs), fast and accurate analytical methods are crucial to determine and monitor levels in the environment. This study presents an LC-MS/MS method that requires minimal sample preparation and yet can identify 10 different BPs in environmental samples such as surface or wastewater resulting in a LOQ range from 2 to 1060 ng/L. The method suitability was tested through environmental monitoring, which showed that, BP-4 is the most abundant derivative found in the surface waters of Germany, India, South Africa and Vietnam. BP-4 levels correlate with the WWTP effluent fraction of the respective river for selected samples in Germany. Peak values of 171 ng/L for 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP), as measured in Vietnamese surface water, already exceed the PNEC value of 80 ng/L, elevating 4-OH-BP to the status of a new pollutant that needs more frequent monitoring. Moreover, this study reveals that during biodegradation of benzophenone in river water, the transformation product 4-OH-BP is formed which contain structural alerts for estrogenic activity. By using yeast-based reporter gene assays, this study provides bio-equivalents of 9 BPs, 4-OH-BP, 2,3,4-tri-OH-BP, 4-cresol and benzoate and complements the existing structure-activities relationships of BPs and their degradation products.
|Journal||Journal of hazardous materials|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Aug 2023|
Research priority areas of TU Dresden
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biodegradation, LC-MS/MS method development, Monitoring, Organic UV filters, Yeast-based reporter gene-assays, Water, Chromatography, Liquid/methods, Humans, Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods, Sunscreening Agents/chemistry, Receptors, Androgen, Estrogens/analysis, Benzophenones/chemistry, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry, Lc-ms, MS method development