The potential of gamification for user education in partial and conditional driving automation: A driving simulator study

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Drivers must establish adequate mental models to ensure safe driver-vehicle interaction in combined partial and conditional driving automation. To achieve this, user education is considered crucial. Since gamification has previously shown positive effects on learning motivation and performance, it could serve as a measure to enhance user education on automated vehicles. We developed a tablet-based instruction involving gamified elements and compared it to instruction without gamification and a control group receiving a user manual. After instruction, participants (N = 57) experienced a 30-minute automated drive on a motorway in a fixed-base driving simulator. Participants who received the gamified instruction reported a higher level of intrinsic motivation to learn the provided content. The results also indicate that gamification promotes mental model formation and trust during the automated drive. Taken together, including gamification in user education for automated driving is a promising approach to enhance safe driver-vehicle interaction.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-268
Number of pages17
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Issue number90
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

External IDs

WOS 000863235800004
Mendeley 12c094d4-90d1-33a4-a359-9d1c6b0b0f14
ORCID /0000-0003-3162-9656/work/142246928



  • Automated driving, Gamification, Mental model, Mode awareness, Motivation