The intelligent agent model -- a fully two-dimensional microscopic traffic flow model

Research output: Preprint/documentation/report › Preprint


Recently, a fully two-dimensional microscopic traffic flow model for lane-free vehicular traffic flow has been proposed [Physica A, 509, pp. 1-11 (2018)]. In this contribution, we generalize this model to describe any kind of human-driven directed flow including lane-based vehicular flow, lane-free mixed traffic, bicycle traffic, and pedestrian flow. The proposed intelligent-agent model (IAM) has the same philosophy as the well-known social-force model (SFM) for pedestrians but the interaction and boundary forces are based on car-following models making this model suitable for higher speeds. Depending on the underlying car-following model, the IAM includes anticipation, response to relative velocities, and accident-free driving. When adding a suitable floor field, the IAM reverts to an integrated car-following and lane-changing model with continuous lane changes. We simulate this model in several lane-based and lane-free environments in various geometries with and without obstacles. We observe that the model produces accident-free traffic flow reproducing the observed self-organisation phenomena.


Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2023
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External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-1730-0750/work/145696436



  • physics.soc-ph, nlin.AO