Temperature-dependent pullout behavior of geopolymer concrete reinforced with polymer- or mineral-impregnated carbon fiber composites: An experimental and numerical study

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Despite significant advantages, large-scale use of carbon-reinforced concrete has been hitherto limited due to insufficient thermal resistance and chemical compatibility with cementitious materials. In this regard, mineral-impregnated carbon fibers (MCFs) made with a geopolymer (GP) are a promising, novel reinforcement for GP concrete, making cement-free, lightweight, fireproof, and durable structures. This paper is envisaged to study the temperature-dependent pullout behavior of MCFs in GP concrete and for a comparison with a commercial, epoxy-impregnated product. The experimental results showed comparable load-transferring capacity and post-crack behavior at ambient temperature but better bonding quality at elevated temperatures for MCFs. These were explained by the material structures, failure patterns, and thermal behavior of the yarns and GP concrete, as characterized by micro-tomography, microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Finally, a three-dimensional, finite element model was used to simulate and predict the pull-out process through a combined discrete cohesive zone model and smeared phase-field method in a representative crack element framework. With proper parametric calibrations, evident agreement between numerical and experimental results was gained.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8474-8486
Number of pages13
JournalACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jun 2023

External IDs

WOS 001005175700001
Scopus 85162917145
Mendeley 8dd8efa0-b3da-3730-8f73-17dc3eb286b9


Research priority areas of TU Dresden

Subject groups, research areas, subject areas according to Destatis


  • Carbon-fiber composite, Elevated temperatures, Geopolymer, Mineral impregnation, Numerical simulations, carbon-fiber composite, geopolymer, numerical simulations, elevated temperatures, mineral impregnation