Ferroelectric domain wall (DW) conductivity (DWC) can be attributed to two separate mechanisms: (a) the injection/ejection of charge carriers across the Schottky barrier formed at the (metal-) electrode-DW junction and (b) the transport of those charge carriers along the DW. Current-voltage (IU) characteristics, recorded at variable temperatures from LiNbO$_3$ (LNO) DWs, are clearly able to differentiate between these two contributions. Practically, they allow us here to directly quantify the physical parameters relevant for the two mechanisms (a) and (b) mentioned above. These are, e.g., the resistance of the DW, the saturation current, the ideality factor, and the Schottky barrier height of the electrode/DW junction. Furthermore, the activation energies needed to initiate the thermally-activated electronic transport along the DWs, can be extracted. In addition, we show that electronic transport along LiNbO$_3$ DWs can be elegantly viewed and interpreted in an adapted semiconductor picture based on a double-diode/double-resistor equivalent circuit model, the R2D2 model. Finally, our R2D2 model was checked for its universality by fitting the DWC data not only to z-cut LNO bulk DWs, but equally to z-cut thin-film LNO DWs, and DWC from x-cut DWs as reported in literature.
|Number of pages||16|
|Publication status||Published - 19 Jul 2023|
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