Printed single-wall carbon nanotube-based Joule heating devices integrated as functional laminae in advanced composites

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • George Karalis - , University of Ioannina (First author)
  • Lazaros Tzounis - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Evangelos Dimos - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Christos K. Mytafides - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Marco Liebscher - , Chair of Construction Materials (Author)
  • Andreas Karydis-Messinis - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Nikolaos E. Zafeiropoulos - , University of Ioannina (Author)
  • Alkiviadis S. Paipetis - , University of Ioannina (Author)


This work reports the design and fabrication of novel printed single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) electrothermal Joule heating devices. The devices are directly deposited on unidirectional (UD) glass fiber (GF) fabrics. The GF-SWCNT Joule heaters were integrated during manufacturing as "system"plies in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite laminates. Specific secondary functions were imparted on the composite laminate endowing thus a multifunctional character. The efficient out-of-oven curing (OOC) of a CFRP laminate was demonstrated using a sandwich configuration comprising top/bottom GF-SWCNT system plies. A total power consumption of ca. 10.5 kWh for the efficient polymerization of the thermoset matrix was required. Infrared thermography (IR-T) monitoring showed a uniform and stable temperature field before and after impregnation with epoxy resin. Quasi-static three-point bending and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed a minor knock-down effect of the OOC-CFRP laminates properties compared to oven cured CFRPs, whereas the glass transition temperature (Tg) was almost identical. The OOC-CFRP laminates were efficient in providing additional functions such as deicing and self-sensing that are highly sought in the energy and transport sectors, i.e., wind turbine blades or aircraft wings. The novel modular design provides unique opportunities for large-area applications via multiple interconnected arrays of printed devices.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39880-39893
Number of pages14
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number33
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2021

External IDs

PubMed 34378907


Research priority areas of TU Dresden

Subject groups, research areas, subject areas according to Destatis

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • advanced FRP laminates, deicing, electrothermal-Joule heating effect, multifunctional composites, out-of-oven curing (OOC), printed heater, smart materials, SWCNT

Library keywords