Numerical optimization-based design studies on biaxial tensile tests

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Biaxial tensile tests are of great significance for the characterization of materials. For ductile materials, they allow the representation of the yield strength curve separating elastic and plastic material behavior. Contrary demands regarding the specimen design arise, if a biaxial stress state with the equivalent stress equal or close to the yield strength shall be obtained. On one hand, the specimen shall be of constant thickness and stiffness, in order to allow an unconstrained deformation without undesired lateral strains. On the other hand, stress concentrations arising from the load introduction make a thickened border region necessary, in order to avoid a premature failure of the specimen. The present paper addresses this problem by a multi-objective structural optimization using Evolutionary Algorithms. Well-defined parametric models of biaxial tensile test specimens allow to systematically investigate the influence of the thickness distribution and the sizing of the border region. Additionally, the influence of actuators of constant force compared to actuators of constant displacement are quantified. In all cases, the minimization of the stress difference as well as the actuation effort are considered as objectives. The results allow a deep insight to the optimal definition of biaxial tensile test specimens and are summed up in well-defined design proposals.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4358-4379
Number of pages22
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
Issue number19
Early online date7 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2023

External IDs

Mendeley a2ce041d-84ae-3879-bd1f-e3dea6dfda6d
Scopus 85147710107
WOS 000987445400001


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Biaxial tensile test, design proposals, structural optimization, test specimen, topography optimization, Test specimen, Structural optimization, Topography optimization, Design proposals