As the knowledge on the joint effects of pharmaceuticals towards different non-target organisms is still limited, the aim of our study was to evaluate the toxicity of mixtures of pharmaceuticals, as well as their baseline toxicity towards three selected organisms, namely the bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri, the crustacean Daphnia magna, and the duckweed Lemna minor. Different mixtures composed of three up to five pharmaceuticals having the same or different mechanisms of action in terms of their therapeutic activity (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesic, antibacterial and anti-epileptic drugs) were investigated. The observed EC 50s were compared with those predicted using the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models. In general, the EC 50 values for mixtures predicted with the CA model were lower than those obtained with the IA model, although, in some cases, test predictions of these two models were almost identical. Most of the experimentally determined EC 50 values for the specific mixtures were slightly higher than those predicted with the CA model; hence, a less than additive effect was noted. Based on the obtained results, it might be concluded that the CA model assumes the worst-case scenario and gives overall closer predictions; therefore, it should be recommended also for modeling the mixture toxicity of pharmaceuticals with different modes of action.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Environmental Science and Pollution Research|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2022|
Research priority areas of TU Dresden
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- toxicity, pharmaceutical, Aquatic environment, Concentration addition, Ecotoxicity, Emerging pollutants, Independent action, Joint effects, Toxicity test, Animals, Aliivibrio fischeri, Araceae, Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity, Daphnia, Pharmaceutical Preparations