Manufacturing, development and control of a two-way 3D printed soft actuator actuated with SMAs

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleContributedpeer-review


In this contribution, the development of a novel two-way 3D printed soft actuator actuated with shape memory alloys (SMAs) is presented, considering all the stages from the design, manufacturing, control, and implementation. The SMAs are integrated into the 3D printed composite using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). In order to measure the deflection of the soft actuator a computer vision system was implemented. With these measures and using system identification techniques, a mathematical model was developed, which describes the dynamics of the prototype and helps to design of a controller. However, precise control of deflection in systems actuated by SMAs is challenging due to their inherent nonlinearities and hysteretic behavior. To face this challenge, a proportional-integral (PI) controller was designed based on robust stability conditions. The effectiveness of the designed PI controller was validated through experimental results.


Original languageEnglish
Article number012049
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2024


Title13th EASN International Conference on "Innovation in Aviation & Space for opening New Horizons"
Abbreviated titleEASN 2023
Conference number13
Duration5 - 8 September 2023
Degree of recognitionInternational event
LocationUniversity of Salerno

External IDs

Scopus 85188315085
ORCID /0000-0003-2834-8933/work/156811389
ORCID /0000-0002-8854-7726/work/156812471
ORCID /0000-0002-2108-1095/work/156813490
ORCID /0000-0002-3347-0864/work/156814098


Library keywords