Manufacture and deformation angle control of a two-direction soft actuator integrated with SMAs

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


In this contribution, the development of a 3D-printed soft actuator integrated with shape memory alloys (SMA) wires capable of bending in two directions is presented. This work discusses the design, manufacturing, modeling, simulation, and feedback control of the actuator. The SMA wires are encased in Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes and then integrated into the 3D-printed matrix made of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). To measure and control the deformation angle of the soft actuator, a computer vision system was implemented. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model was developed using the system identification method and simulated to describe the dynamics of the actuator, contributing to the design of a controller. However, achieving precise control of the deformation angle in systems actuated by SMA wires is challenging due to their inherent nonlinearities and hysteretic behavior. A proportional-integral (PI) controller was designed to address this challenge, and its effectiveness was validated through real experiments.


Original languageEnglish
Article number758
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2024

External IDs

Scopus 85184709985
ORCID /0000-0003-2834-8933/work/153654205
ORCID /0000-0002-8854-7726/work/153654440
ORCID /0000-0002-3347-0864/work/153655345
WOS 001160513200001
ORCID /0000-0002-2108-1095/work/155163862



  • shape memory alloys, soft actuator, 3D printed soft structures, thermoplastic polyurethane, system identification, PI controller, closed-loop control