Feedback Strategies for Interactive Learning Tasks

Research output: Contribution to book/conference proceedings/anthology/reportChapter in book/anthology/reportContributedpeer-review



Modern information technologies increase the range of feedback strategies that can be implemented in computer- based learning environments; however, the design and implementation of feedback strategies are very complex tasks that are often based more on intuition than on psychologically sound design principles. The purpose of this chapter is to present theoretically and empirically based guidelines for the design and evaluation of feedback strategies. To this end, this chapter describes an interactive, two-feedback-loop model that explains core factors and effects of feedback in interactive instruction (Narciss, 2006). Based on these theoretical considerations, a multidimensional view of designing and evaluating multiples feedback strategies under multiple individual and situational conditions is presented. This multidimensional view integrates recommendations of prior research on elaborated feedback (Schimmel, 1988; Smith and Ragan, 1993), task analyses (Jonassen et al., 1999), error analyses (VanLehn, 1990), and tutoring techniques (Mc- Kendree, 1990; Merrill et al., 1992).


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, Third Edition
PublisherTaylor and Francis Group
Number of pages19
ISBN (electronic)9781135596910
ISBN (print)9780203880869
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-4280-6534/work/142251729


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Cybernetics: System theory concerned with the issues of regulation, order, and stability confronting us in the treatment of complex systems and processes., Feedback: Output of a system that is fed back to the controller of the system as an input signal to regulate the system with regard to a reference value (cybernetic definition); post-response information that is provided to learners to inform them of their actual state of learning or performance (instructional context)., Informative tutoring feedback: Multiple-try feedback strategies providing elaborated feedback components that guide the learner toward successful task completion without offering immediately the correct response., Interactive learning task: Tasks providing multiple response steps or tries and instructional components such as feedback, guiding questions, prompts, simulation facilities, and so on.