Modern information technologies increase the range of feedback strategies that can be implemented in computer- based learning environments; however, the design and implementation of feedback strategies are very complex tasks that are often based more on intuition than on psychologically sound design principles. The purpose of this chapter is to present theoretically and empirically based guidelines for the design and evaluation of feedback strategies. To this end, this chapter describes an interactive, two-feedback-loop model that explains core factors and effects of feedback in interactive instruction (Narciss, 2006). Based on these theoretical considerations, a multidimensional view of designing and evaluating multiples feedback strategies under multiple individual and situational conditions is presented. This multidimensional view integrates recommendations of prior research on elaborated feedback (Schimmel, 1988; Smith and Ragan, 1993), task analyses (Jonassen et al., 1999), error analyses (VanLehn, 1990), and tutoring techniques (Mc- Kendree, 1990; Merrill et al., 1992).
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, Third Edition|
|Publisher||Taylor and Francis Group|
|Number of pages||19|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cybernetics: System theory concerned with the issues of regulation, order, and stability confronting us in the treatment of complex systems and processes., Feedback: Output of a system that is fed back to the controller of the system as an input signal to regulate the system with regard to a reference value (cybernetic definition); post-response information that is provided to learners to inform them of their actual state of learning or performance (instructional context)., Informative tutoring feedback: Multiple-try feedback strategies providing elaborated feedback components that guide the learner toward successful task completion without offering immediately the correct response., Interactive learning task: Tasks providing multiple response steps or tries and instructional components such as feedback, guiding questions, prompts, simulation facilities, and so on.