Effects of sprouting duration on the nutrient, functional, and phytochemical properties of tiger nut flour, and the sensory properties of bread made thereof

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Nazir Kizzie-Hayford - (Author)
  • Ernest Abano - (Author)
  • JoshuA Akanson - (Author)
  • Esi Dankwa - (Author)
  • Harald Rohm - , Chair of Food Engineering (Author)
  • Jerry Ampofo-Asiama - (Author)


Abstract: The influence of sprouting on tiger nut's (TN) nutritional, functional, and phytochemical quality was examined, and the flour used for bread making to evaluate the feasibility as a functional ingredient. TN was sprouted and sampled at 3 days intervals for 12 days, dried and milled into flour and analyzed. Subsequently, 25% of wheat flour (WF) was replaced with the 9 days-sprouted TN flour for bread. Sprouting for 9 days increased the protein content from 9.19 ± 0.04 to 9.79 ± 0.15 g/100 g dry matter (DM), fiber from 6.75 ± 0.16 to 9.27 ± 0.44 g/100 g DM, and ash from 2.34 ± 0.10 to 2.70 ± 0.06 g/100 g DM but decreased fat content from 26.10 ± 0.18 to 23.18 ± 0.43 g/100 g DM and soluble sugar from 33.13 ± 1.25 to 23.75 ± 1.44 °Bx. We observed increases in the polyphenols (94.16 ± 6.43–214.23 ± 6.98 mg GAE/100 g) and ascorbic acid (26.66 ± 0.17–65.13 ± 0.19 mg AE/100 g) and decreases in the cyanogenic glycosides (273.79 ± 0.37–231.54 ± 3.53 mg/100 g) and oxalates (19.04 ± 1.14–5.65 ± 0.93 mg/100 g) contents. Sprouting decreased the particle size and increased the water retention and swelling power of TN flour. WF bread was described as stretchy, sweet, and creamy, whereas sprouted TN bread was brown, nutty, and wheat-like. Consumer acceptance for the sprouted TN bread was comparable to WF bread, showing the possible application in bread making. Practical Application: The outcome of the study could help to exploit the nutri-functional and phytochemical benefits of sprouted TN in the baking industry for producing acceptable products. This would enhance the utility of TN for food in regions where TNs grows.


Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
Journal Journal of food science : JFS online
Issue number9
Early online date7 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

External IDs

Mendeley 2c3ef898-d4ef-39f9-823e-bbaddb2831f9
Scopus 85166968298


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • bread, consumer acceptability, sprouting duration, tiger nut

Library keywords