Contribution to the ongoing discussion on fluoride toxicity

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial (Lead article)Contributedpeer-review

Contributors

  • Sabine Guth - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Stephanie Hueser - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Angelika Roth - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Gisela Degen - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Patrick Diel - , German Sport University Cologne (Author)
  • Karolina Edlund - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Gerhard Eisenbrand - (Author)
  • Karl-Heinz Engel - , Technical University of Munich (Author)
  • Bernd Epe - , Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (Author)
  • Tilman Grune - , German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (Author)
  • Volker Heinz - , German Inst Food Technol DIL (Author)
  • Thomas Henle - , Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Hans-Ulrich Humpf - , University of Münster (Author)
  • Henry Jaeger - , University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Author)
  • Hans-Georg Joost - , German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (Author)
  • Sabine E. Kulling - , Max Rubner Institut (Author)
  • Alfonso Lampen - , Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Author)
  • Angela Mally - , University of Würzburg (Author)
  • Rosemarie Marchan - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Doris Marko - , University of Vienna (Author)
  • Eva Muehle - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Michael A. Nitsche - , Ruhr University Bochum (Author)
  • Elke Roehrdanz - , Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) (Author)
  • Richard Stadler - , Nestle (Author)
  • Christoph van Thriel - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Stefan Vieths - , Paul Ehrlich Inst, Paul Ehrlich Institute (Author)
  • Rudi F. Vogel - , Technical University of Munich (Author)
  • Edmund Wascher - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Carsten Watzl - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)
  • Ute Noethlings - , University of Bonn (Author)
  • Jan G. Hengstler - , Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors (IfADo) (Author)

Abstract

Since the addition of fluoride to drinking water in the 1940s, there have been frequent and sometimes heated discussions regarding its benefits and risks. In a recently published review, we addressed the question if current exposure levels in Europe represent a risk to human health. This review was discussed in an editorial asking why we did not calculate benchmark doses (BMD) of fluoride neurotoxicity for humans. Here, we address the question, why it is problematic to calculate BMDs based on the currently available data. Briefly, the conclusions of the available studies are not homogeneous, reporting negative as well as positive results; moreover, the positive studies lack control of confounding factors such as the influence of well-known neurotoxicants. We also discuss the limitations of several further epidemiological studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria of our review. Finally, it is important to not only focus on epidemiological studies. Rather, risk analysis should consider all available data, including epidemiological, animal, as well as in vitro studies. Despite remaining uncertainties, the totality of evidence does not support the notion that fluoride should be considered a human developmental neurotoxicant at current exposure levels in European countries.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2571-2587
Number of pages17
JournalArchives of toxicology
Volume95
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Peer-reviewedYes
Externally publishedYes

External IDs

Scopus 85107481957

Keywords

Sustainable Development Goals

Keywords

  • DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY, SODIUM-FLUORIDE, DRINKING-WATER, MEXICO-CITY, NEUROTOXICITY, EXPOSURE, NUMBER, CELLS, IQ