Closed-loop control of a 3D printed soft actuator with integrated flex sensors and SMA wires

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleContributedpeer-review


This article presents a soft SMA-driven actuator capable of achieving desired bending angles. To create the actuator, flex sensors and Shape memory alloy (SMA) wires were embedded into the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix of the sample during the 3D printing process. By deactivating and activating the two SMA wires according to sensing signals from the flex sensors, the actuator sample can track the input bending angle. This approach enabled closed-loop control and improved the overall efficiency of the system. Additionally, the proposed manufacturing process provides a simple and cost-effective solution for the rapid prototyping and custom design of smart materials with complex structures and high resolutions.


Original languageEnglish
Article number012050
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2024


Title13th EASN International Conference on "Innovation in Aviation & Space for opening New Horizons"
Abbreviated titleEASN 2023
Conference number13
Duration5 - 8 September 2023
Degree of recognitionInternational event
LocationUniversity of Salerno

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0003-2834-8933/work/156336448
ORCID /0000-0002-8854-7726/work/156337643
ORCID /0000-0001-6058-2581/work/156337652
ORCID /0000-0002-2108-1095/work/156337815
ORCID /0000-0002-3347-0864/work/156338277
Scopus 85188315124