A roadmap for quality control of hardening and hardened printed concrete

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review


  • Markus Taubert - , Chair of Construction Materials (Author)
  • Viktor Mechtcherine - , Chair of Construction Materials (First author)
  • Egor Ivaniuk - , Chair of Construction Materials (Author)
  • Kim van Tittelboom - , Ghent University (Author)
  • Ali Kazemian - , Louisiana State University (Author)
  • Eric kreiger - , U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Author)
  • Behzad Nematollahi - , University of Sheffield (Author)
  • Venkatesh Naidu Nerella - , Putzmeister Engineering GmbH (Author)
  • Manu Santhanam - , Indian Institute of Technology Madras (Author)
  • Geert de Schutter - , Ghent University (Author)
  • Gideon Van Zijl - , University of Stellenbosch (Author)
  • Dirk Lowke - , Technical University of Braunschweig (Author)
  • Freek Bos - , Eindhoven University of Technology (Author)


This article focuses on the specifics in characterizing the properties of additively manufactured, cement-based materials in their hardening and hardened states. Such characterization is required for the material development, structural design, and quality control of both printable material and 3D-printed elements. The related challenges are associated with the printed material's layered structure, which results in higher degrees of anisotropy and inhomogeneity in comparison to conventionally cast concrete. Thus, in the production of test specimens, the particularities of the real-scale 3D-printing process must be considered. Here a distinction is made between the production of samples for material testing prior to or parallel to actual application and those extracted from full-scale elements. Specifics of destructive testing are analyzed with emphasis on mechanical characteristics, while the discussion of non-destructive testing mainly addresses the geometry of the deposited layers and printed elements, measuring deformations, and finding such defects as voids and gaps. Finally, approaches required for developing/adapting guidelines and standards for testing of 3D-printed, cement-based materials are discussed.


Original languageEnglish
Article number106800
Number of pages20
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Issue number157
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2022

External IDs

Scopus 85127958344
Mendeley 8b7a19d5-7849-3bcb-b977-0a71bae27ead
WOS 000799138600004
unpaywall 10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106800


Research priority areas of TU Dresden

DFG Classification of Subject Areas according to Review Boards

Subject groups, research areas, subject areas according to Destatis


  • Digital concrete, 3D concrete printing, Quality control, Material testing, Hardened concrete, 3D concrete printing, Digital concrete, Hardened concrete, Material testing, Quality control

Library keywords