A comparison of pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporarily-associated with SARS-CoV-2 and Kawasaki disease

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Klinikum Obergöltzsch Rodewisch
  • Städtisches Klinikum Lüneburg
  • Städtischen Klinikum Karlsruhe
  • Helios Klinikum Schwelm
  • German Academy for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
  • Klinikum St. Georg Leipzig
  • Children's Hospital Auf der Bult
  • Princess Margaret Children's Clinics in Darmstadt
  • Ulm University Medical Center
  • Leopoldina Krankenhaus Schweinfurt
  • DONAU ISAR Klinikum Deggendorf-Dingolfing-Landau gKU
  • Klinikum Esslingen
  • University of Duisburg-Essen
  • GPR Klinikum
  • Wolfsburg Hospital
  • Carl Thiem Clinics Cottbus
  • Hospital Lippe
  • Cologne City Clinics
  • Oberschwabenklinik Ravensburg
  • Medical Center Bethel
  • Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein - Campus Lübeck
  • Technical University of Munich
  • Ruhr University Bochum
  • Freudenstadt District Clinic gGmbH
  • Innsbruck Medical University
  • Prof.-Hess Kinderklinik Bremen-Mitte
  • Artemed Clinics Freiburg (AKF) gGmbH
  • Diakonie Hospital Bad Kreuznach
  • St. Marien- and St. Annastifts Hospital Ludwigshafen
  • Helios Clinics Duisburg
  • Helios Clinic Pforzheim
  • Helios Klinikum Hildesheim
  • University of Hamburg


The connection between Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki Disease (KD) is not yet fully understood. Using the same national registry, clinical features and outcome of children hospitalized in Germany, and Innsbruck (Austria) were compared. Reported to the registry were 395 PIMS and 69 KD hospitalized patients. Patient age in PIMS cases was higher than in KD cases (median 7 [IQR 4–11] vs. 3 [IQR 1–4] years). A majority of both PIMS and KD patients were male and without comorbidities. PIMS patients more frequently presented with organ dysfunction, with the gastrointestinal (80%), cardiovascular (74%), and respiratory (52%) systems being most commonly affected. By contrast, KD patients more often displayed dermatological (99% vs. 68%) and mucosal changes (94% vs. 64%), plus cervical lymph node swelling (51% vs. 34%). Intensive care admission (48% vs. 19%), pulmonary support (32% vs. 10%), and use of inotropes/vasodilators (28% vs. 3%) were higher among PIMS cases. No patients died. Upon patient discharge, potentially irreversible sequelae—mainly cardiovascular—were reported (7% PIMS vs. 12% KD). Despite differences in age distribution and disease severity, PIMS and KD cases shared many common clinical and prognostic characteristics. This supports the hypothesis that the two entities represent a syndrome continuum.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1173
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalScientific reports
Issue number2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

External IDs

PubMed 36670127


Sustainable Development Goals

ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Child, Humans, Male, Female, COVID-19/complications, SARS-CoV-2, Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications

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