Providing external feedback and prompting the generation of internal feedback fosters achievement, strategies and motivation in concept learning.

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftForschungsartikelBeigetragenBegutachtung


The Interactive Two Feedback Loops Model (Narciss, 2008, 2013) suggests that not only providing external feedback but also prompting students to generate internal feedback may influence learning and motivation. This study aims at investigating the effects of internal and external feedback on achievement, strategy, and motivation in concept learning. Using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 121 teacher students we investigated the effects of combining internal feedback (i.e. self-explaining why a task solution is correct or incorrect) with three types of external feedback (no feedback; knowledge of result (KR); KR + knowledge about mistakes (KM)). Combining internal and external types of feedback was more beneficial for concept learning achievement, strategy use, as well as students’ intrinsic motivation, and perceived competence, than providing either internal or external feedback. Most notably, if students are asked to generate internal feedback in terms of self-explaining their responses, simple external KR feedback is as beneficial as elaborated KM-feedback. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)


Seiten (von - bis)1-11
Fachzeitschrift Learning and instruction : the journal of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction EARLI
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 1 Dez. 2022

Externe IDs

Scopus 85135940816
unpaywall 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2022.101658
WOS 000849774100002
ORCID /0000-0002-4280-6534/work/127535405
ORCID /0000-0002-8085-174X/work/142251268



  • Concept Formation, Feedback, Intrinsic Motivation, Knowledge of Results, Prompting, Academic Achievement Motivation, Errors, School Learning, ITFL-Model, Internal and external feedback, Self-explanation, DESIGN, METAANALYSIS, TUTORING FEEDBACK, SELF-EXPLANATIONS, STUDENTS, SENSE