Worsening of the Cardiovascular Profile in a Developing Country: The Greater Beirut Area Cardiovascular Cohort

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Background: Lebanon has no established governmental noncommunicable diseases surveillance and monitoring system to permit reporting on noncommunicable diseases rates. The last World Health Organization-supported surveillance report showed worrying trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Objectives: A cardiovascular cohort was established to permit CVD outcomes studies in an urban sample in the Lebanese capital and the study in hand presents the baseline CVD risk factors of this cohort. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out including 501 Lebanese adults (64.3% women) from the Greater Beirut area using random multistage probability sampling. Interviews, physical exams, and blood withdrawal were conducted to collect information on demographic and lifestyle factors, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, blood lipids, as well as history of coronary artery diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, dyslipidemia, and stroke. Means with SD for continuous variables and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables are reported. Results: The prevalence CVD risk factors including obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, and dyslipidemia prevalence in the Greater Beirut area was higher than that reported for the general population. Important sex and age differences were also observed, whereby older participants and women had higher rates of obesity, diabetes mellitus type 2, and dyslipidemia and younger participants and men were engaged more in cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Interestingly, water pipe smoking was similarly prevalent among genders. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of CVD risk factors in this urban population is higher than reported in the 2010 World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance report on the Lebanese population, indicating that the urban population in the capital carries a higher burden of CVD risk. In addition, sex and age difference rates of CVD risk factors highlight the need for tailored public health measures to tackle the sex- and age-based CVD risk factors.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-283
Number of pages9
JournalGlobal heart
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

External IDs

PubMed 29716848
ORCID /0009-0004-4894-2360/work/142240729