When is Knowledge of Performance (KP) superior to Knowledge of Results (KR) in promoting motor skill learning? A systematic review.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review


Augmented feedback is a key component of motor skill learning. Feedback can provide information relating to the movement outcome (knowledge of results; KR) or information relating to a movement parameter (knowledge of performance; KP). The effect of KR on skill learning has been long studied, but it is unclear whether KP can supplement or substitute KR to enhance learning. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of KR with the effect of KP, and a combination of KR and KP, on motor skill learning. An electronic search was performed on Psychinfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscuss databases. A total of 19 studies of mixed quality were included. The results showed that a combination of KR and prescriptive KP was superior to KR; prescriptive KP alone was superior to KR; and KR was superior to descriptive KP. We speculate that this finding supports the view that augmented feedback promotes motor learning when it facilitates a learner’s search for goal-relevant movement solutions. Considering the sample included, these results can be generalized only to novices. We encourage future research to examine how skill level and additional classification of KP interact with KR and KP on the learning process.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-25
JournalInternational Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2021

External IDs

Scopus 85117291918
ORCID /0000-0002-4280-6534/work/127535398


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