Vehicle scheduling for on-demand vehicle fleets in macroscopic travel demand models

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Johann Hartleb - (Author)
  • Markus Friedrich - (Author)
  • Emely Richter - , University of Stuttgart (Author)


The planning of on-demand services requires the formation of vehicle schedules consisting of service trips and empty trips. This paper presents an algorithm for building vehicle schedules that uses time-dependent demand matrices (= service trips) as input and determines time-dependent empty trip matrices and the number of required vehicles as a result. The presented approach is intended for long-term, strategic transport planning. For this purpose, it provides planners with an estimate of vehicle fleet size and distance travelled by on-demand services. The algorithm can be applied to integer and non-integer demand matrices and is therefore particularly suitable for macroscopic travel demand models. Two case studies illustrate potential applications of the algorithm and feature that on-demand services can be considered in macroscopic travel demand models.


Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)1133-1155
Number of pages23
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-1582-6089/work/150884778
Scopus 85109268404



  • Automated vehicles, Carsharing, Macroscopic travel demand models, On-demand service, Ridesharing, Vehicle scheduling