Validation of risk scores for prediction of severe pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Moritz Müller-Plathe - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Bilgin Osmanodja - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Georg Barthel - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Klemens Budde - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Kai-Uwe Eckardt - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Martin Kolditz - , Department of Medical Biology, Department of internal Medicine I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Author)
  • Martin Witzenrath - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)


PURPOSE: Risk scores for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are widely used for standardized assessment in immunocompetent patients and to identify patients at risk for severe pneumonia and death. In immunocompromised patients, the prognostic value of pneumonia-specific risk scores seems to be reduced, but evidence is limited. The value of different pneumonia risk scores in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) is not known.

METHODS: Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed 310 first CAP episodes after kidney transplantation in 310 KTR. We assessed clinical outcomes and validated eight different risk scores (CRB-65, CURB-65, DS-CRB-65, qSOFA, SOFA, PSI, IDSA/ATS minor criteria, NEWS-2) for the prognosis of severe pneumonia and in-hospital mortality. Risk scores were assessed up to 48 h after admission, but always before an endpoint occurred. Multiple imputation was performed to handle missing values.

RESULTS: In total, 16 out of 310 patients (5.2%) died, and 48 (15.5%) developed severe pneumonia. Based on ROC analysis, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and national early warning score 2 (NEWS-2) performed best, predicting severe pneumonia with AUC of 0.823 (0.747-0.880) and 0.784 (0.691-0.855), respectively.

CONCLUSION: SOFA and NEWS-2 are best suited to identify KTR at risk for the development of severe CAP. In contrast to immunocompetent patients, CRB-65 should not be used to guide outpatient treatment in KTR, since there is a 7% risk for the development of severe pneumonia even in patients with a score of zero.


Original languageEnglish
Early online date20 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2023

External IDs

Scopus 85177219839
ORCID /0000-0001-6022-6827/work/148145402