Utilization of sperm cryopreservation in patients with testicular cancer

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PURPOSE: We assessed factors that affect the utilization of sperm cryopreservation before 2021, when patients covered expenses, and the influence on quality of life.

METHODS: Between 2011 and 2021, testicular cancer survivors (TCS) at our clinic completed a questionnaire, including EORTC QLQ-TC26, covering sperm cryopreservation, sociodemographic details, post-treatment births, and artificial insemination.

RESULTS: After 5.7 ± 3.0 years, 279 participants (64%) responded to the questionnaire. Among them, 33% (91/279) of testicular cancer survivors chose sperm cryopreservation prior to treatment, with 11% (10/91) using it for insemination. Conversely, 2% (3/188) without cryopreservation reported unfulfilled desire to have children. Univariate analysis showed TCS with cryopreservation were younger (30.6 ± 7.1 (35 (21-59)) vs. 42.4 ± 10.9 (48 (22-81)) years; p = 0.001), had a lower BMI (24.2 ± 3.3 vs. 26.6 ± 4.6 kg/m2; p = 0.009) and a lower Charlson Score (> 3: 36% vs. 60%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed older age (≥ 37 years: OR 13.1 (5.5-31.2), p < 0.001) and lower education (middle school or less: OR 3.3 (1.6-6.9), p = 0.001) as independent factors associated with not undergoing cryopreservation. Regarding quality of life, multivariate analysis identified a lower infertility anxiety score (OR 4.3 (2.0-9.0), p < 0.001) and higher age (≥ 44 years: OR 5.4 (2.6-11.3); p < 0.001) as predictors for the absence of prior cryopreservation.

CONCLUSIONS: Age and education seem to impact the choice of undergoing paid sperm cryopreservation. Urologists should inform testicular cancer patients about costs and coverage. Importantly, the occurrence of unmet desires for parenthood is minimal among those who forego cryopreservation.


Original languageEnglish
Article number201
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of cancer research and clinical oncology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2024

External IDs

Scopus 85190602488


Sustainable Development Goals


  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal, Spermatozoa, Cryopreservation, Semen, Humans, Quality of Life, Adult, Male, Testicular Neoplasms/therapy, Child

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