Towards Generalizable Classification of Partial Discharges in Gas-Insulated HVDC Systems using Neural Networks: Protrusions and Particles

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


Undetected partial discharges (PDs) are a safety critical issue in high voltage (HV) gas-insulated systems (GIS). While the diagnosis of PDs under AC voltage is well-established, the analysis of PDs under DC voltage remains an active research field. A key focus of these investigations is the classification of different PD sources to enable subsequent sophisticated analysis. In this paper, we present an analysis of a 1D-CNN-based approach for classifying laboratory PD signals caused by metallic protrusions and conductive particles on the insulator of HVDC GIS, under both negative and positive potentials. Most notably, our study demonstrates that this type of neural network, regardless of the training order, can generalize learnings to operating voltage multiples that it has not previously encountered. We evaluate this generalization performance under the presence of additional white Gaussian noise and investigate the influence of excluding the amplitude-related information in the signal. Further, we compare the network's performance when using input signals in both the time and frequency domain.


Original languageEnglish
Article number10444905
Pages (from-to)1491-1499
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE transactions on power delivery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-8389-8869/work/154738708
ORCID /0000-0001-7436-0103/work/154740843
ORCID /0000-0002-4793-8800/work/154741932
unpaywall 10.1109/tpwrd.2024.3369872
Scopus 85187004448
Mendeley cf473fb6-5d5a-3de7-9b18-1468d6d775c5



  • Partial discharges, HVDC transmission, UHF measurements, Stress, Voltage measurement, Needles, High-voltage techniques, Fault diagnosis, HVDC, HVDC transmission, High-voltage techniques, Needles, Partial discharges, Stress, UHF measurements, Voltage measurement, machine learning, neural networks, partial discharge