Three-Dimensional Plotted Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Defect Augmentation—A New Method for Regeneration

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For sinus grafting, different methods and materials are available. One possible shortcoming of particulate bone grafts is either overfilling or augmenting the planned implant area insufficiently. To overcome this risk and to determine the implant position prior augmentation, we present an approach using three-dimensional printed scaffolds. A patient with a remaining anterior dentition and bilateral severely atrophied posterior maxilla was seeking oral rehabilitation. The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed residual bone heights between one and two millimeters. Following the three-dimensional reconstruction of the CBCT data, the positions of the implants were determined in areas 16 and 26. Three-dimensional scaffolds adapted to the topography of the sinus were virtually designed and printed using a calcium phosphate cement paste. Bilateral sinus floor augmentation applying the printed scaffolds with an interconnecting porosity followed. After nine months, a satisfying integration of the scaffolds was obvious. At the re-entry, vital bone with sufficient blood supply was found. One implant could be placed in positions 16 and 26, respectively. After five months, the implants could be uncovered and were provided with a temporary denture. The application of three-dimensionally printed scaffolds from calcium phosphate cement paste seems to be a promising technique to graft the severely atrophied posterior maxilla for the placement of dental implants.


Original languageEnglish
Article number464
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • calcium-phosphate scaffold, computer aided design, computer aided manufacturing, sinus floor augmentation