The judgment of personality: an overview of current empirical research findings.

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Tera D. Letzring - , Idaho State University (Author)
  • Nora A. Murphy - , Loyola Marymount University (Author)
  • Jüri Allik - , University of Tartu (Author)
  • Andrew Beer - , University of South Carolina - Upstate (Author)
  • Johannes Zimmermann - , University of Kassel (Author)
  • Daniel Leising - , Chair of Assessment and Intervention (Author)


This article presents an overview of the current state of knowledge in personality judgment research. We discuss accuracy and bias in personality judgments, including types of inter-rater agreement and elements of criteria used to determine levels of agreement and accuracy. We then address 1) the words and phrases that people use to describe one another and themselves, 2) research investigating judgments of targets by perceivers per trait, and 3) research investigating judgments of targets by perceivers on profiles or sets of traits. We also provide 4) an outlook regarding important research questions that remain unanswered in this field.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere6043
Number of pages20
JournalPersonality Science : PS
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2021



  • personality judgement, Judgement accuracy, person perception, bias, Inter-rater agreement, self-other agreement, consensus

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