The impact of black carbon (BC) on mode-specific galvanic skin response (GSR) as a measure of stress in urban environments

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review

Contributors

  • Xiuleng Yang - , Imperial College London (Author)
  • Juan Pablo Orjuela - , University of Oxford (Author)
  • Emma McCoy - , Imperial College London (Author)
  • Guillem Vich - , Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) Hospital Clínic (Author)
  • Esther Anaya-Boig - , Imperial College London (Author)
  • Ione Avila-Palencia - , Queen's University Belfast (Author)
  • Christian Brand - , University of Oxford (Author)
  • Glòria Carrasco-Turigas - , Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) Hospital Clínic, CIBER - Center for Biomedical Research Network, Pompeu Fabra University (Author)
  • Evi Dons - , Hasselt University, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (Author)
  • Regine Gerike - , Chair of Mobility System Planning, Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Thomas Götschi - , University of Oregon (Author)
  • Mark Nieuwenhuijsen - , Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) Hospital Clínic, CIBER - Center for Biomedical Research Network, Pompeu Fabra University (Author)
  • Luc Int Panis - , Hasselt University, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (Author)
  • Arnout Standaert - , Flemish Institute for Technological Research (Author)
  • Audrey de Nazelle - , Imperial College London (Author)

Abstract

Previous research has shown that walking and cycling could help alleviate stress in cities, however there is poor knowledge on how specific microenvironmental conditions encountered during daily journeys may lead to varying degrees of stress experienced at that moment. We use objectively measured data and a robust causal inference framework to address this gap. Using a Bayesian Doubly Robust (BDR) approach, we find that black carbon exposure statistically significantly increases stress, as measured by Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), while cycling and while walking. Augmented Outcome Regression (AOR) models indicate that greenspace exposure and the presence of walking or cycling infrastructure could reduce stress. None of these effects are statistically significant for people in motorized transport. These findings add to a growing evidence-base on health benefits of policies aimed at decreasing air pollution, improving active travel infrastructure and increasing greenspace in cities.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number114083
JournalEnvironmental research
Volume214
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022
Peer-reviewedYes

External IDs

PubMed 35995220

Keywords

Sustainable Development Goals

Keywords

  • Active travel, Air pollution, Built environment, Causal inference, Stress, Urban planning