The future landscape of large language models in medicine

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleContributedpeer-review



Large language models (LLMs) are artificial intelligence (AI) tools specifically trained to process and generate text. LLMs attracted substantial public attention after OpenAI's ChatGPT was made publicly available in November 2022. LLMs can often answer questions, summarize, paraphrase and translate text on a level that is nearly indistinguishable from human capabilities. The possibility to actively interact with models like ChatGPT makes LLMs attractive tools in various fields, including medicine. While these models have the potential to democratize medical knowledge and facilitate access to healthcare, they could equally distribute misinformation and exacerbate scientific misconduct due to a lack of accountability and transparency. In this article, we provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of the potentials and limitations of LLMs in clinical practice, medical research and medical education.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141
Number of pages8
JournalCommunications medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2023

External IDs

PubMedCentral PMC10564921
WOS 001078603900001
unpaywall 10.1038/s43856-023-00370-1
ORCID /0000-0003-2265-4809/work/149798321
ORCID /0000-0001-8501-1566/work/150883651


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  • Patient safety, Communication, Impact, Care