The effects of internal feedback and self-compassion on the perception of negative feedback and post-feedback learning behavior

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


Negative feedback confronts learners with errors or failure but holds great learning potential. However, learners might perceive it as self-threatening, and thus react maladaptively. Feedback theories recommend prompting internal feedback prior to external feedback. And self-compassion is found to support adaptive reactions to failure. Thus, this study examined in a 2 × 2 factorial design the effects of prompting internal feedback or self-compassion, or both, on feedback perception and post-feedback learning behavior. Participants (N = 210) completed a brief difficult reasoning test and received failure feedback. Perceived acceptance and fairness of the feedback were higher in the internal feedback and self-compassion conditions compared to the control condition with no prompts. The intervention effects were higher for participants with high perceived competence and low trait self-compassion. No significant effects on post-feedback learning behavior were observed. The results highlight the relevance of internal feedback processes for feedback perception.


Original languageEnglish
Article number101237
JournalStudies in Educational Evaluation
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023

External IDs

unpaywall 10.1016/j.stueduc.2023.101237
ORCID /0000-0001-7494-1880/work/142254117
ORCID /0000-0002-4280-6534/work/142251704


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Feedback perception, Internal feedback, Self-compassion