Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an ultra-rare malignancy with a high risk of recurrence after surgery. Tumour-directed systemic treatments for PC are not established. We used whole-genome and RNA sequencing in four patients with advanced PC to identify molecular alterations that could guide clinical management. In two cases, the genomic and transcriptomic profiles provided targets for experimental therapies that resulted in biochemical response and prolonged disease stabilization: (a) immune checkpoint inhibition with pembrolizumab based on high tumour mutational burden and a single-base substitution signature associated with APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) overactivation; (b) multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition with lenvatinib due to overexpression of FGFR1 (Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1) and RET (Ret Proto-Oncogene) and, (c) later in the course of the disease, PARP (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase) inhibition with olaparib prompted by signs of defective homologous recombination DNA repair. In addition, our data provided new insights into the molecular landscape of PC with respect to the genome-wide footprints of specific mutational processes and pathogenic germline alterations. These data underscore the potential of comprehensive molecular analyses to improve care for patients with ultra-rare cancers based on insight into disease biology.
|Number of pages
|Published - Jul 2023
Sustainable Development Goals
- Humans, Parathyroid Neoplasms/drug therapy, Transcriptome/genetics, Mutation/genetics, Genomics/methods, Gene Expression Profiling/methods, Carcinoma/genetics, RNA sequencing, Mutational signature, Immune checkpoint inhibition, Whole-genome sequencing, Tyrosine kinase inhibition, Tumour mutational burden, whole-genome sequencing, tumour mutational burden, tyrosine kinase inhibition, mutational signature, immune checkpoint inhibition