Bone tissue defects resulting from periodontal disease are often treated using guided tissue regeneration (GTR). The barrier membranes utilized here should prevent soft tissue infiltration into the bony defect and simultaneously support bone regeneration. In this study, we designed a degradable poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane that was surface-modified with cell adhesive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs. For a novel method of membrane manufacture, the RGD motifs were coupled with the non-ionic amphiphilic polymer poly(2-oxazoline) (POx). The RGD-containing membranes were then prepared by solvent casting of PLGA, POx coupled with RGD (POx_RGD), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solution in methylene chloride (DCM), followed by DCM evaporation and PEG leaching. Successful coupling of RGD to POx was confirmed spec-troscopically by Raman, Fourier transform infrared in attenuated reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, while successful immobilization of POx_RGD on the membrane surface was confirmed by XPS and FTIR-ATR. The resulting membranes had an asymmetric microstructure, as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), where the glass-cured surface was more porous and had a higher surface area then the air-cured surface. The higher porosity should support bone tissue regeneration, while the air-cured side is more suited to preventing soft tissue infiltration. The behavior of osteoblast-like cells on PLGA membranes modified with POx_RGD was compared to cell behavior on PLGA foil, non-modified PLGA membranes, or PLGA membranes modified only with POx. For this, MG-63 cells were cultured for 4, 24, and 96 h on the membranes and analyzed by metabolic activity tests, live/dead staining, and fluorescent staining of actin fibers. The results showed bone cell adhesion, proliferation, and viability to be the highest on membranes modified with POx_RGD, making them possible candidates for GTR applications in periodontology and in bone tissue engineering.
|Journal of functional biomaterials
|Published - Jan 2022