Single-Site Experience with an Automated Artificial Intelligence Application for Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Measurement in Echocardiography

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Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a key parameter in evaluating left ventricular (LV) function using echocardiography (Echo), but its manual measurement by the modified biplane Simpson (MBS) method is time consuming and operator dependent. We investigated the feasibility of a server-based, commercially available and ready-to use-artificial intelligence (AI) application based on convolutional neural network methods that integrate fully automatic view selection and measurement of LVEF from an entire Echo exam into a single workflow. We prospectively enrolled 1083 consecutive patients who had been referred to Echo for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. LVEF was measured independently using MBS and AI. Test-retest variability was assessed in 40 patients. The reliability, repeatability, and time efficiency of LVEF measurements were compared between the two methods. Overall, 889 Echos were analyzed by cardiologists with the MBS method and by the AI. Over the study period of 10 weeks, the feasibility of both automatic view classification and seamlessly measured LVEF rose to 81% without user involvement. LVEF, LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes correlated strongly between MBS and AI (R = 0.87, 0.89 and 0.93, p < 0.001 for all) with a mean bias of +4.5% EF, -12 mL and -11 mL, respectively, due to impaired image quality and the extent of LV function. Repeatability and reliability of LVEF measurement (n = 40, test-retest) by AI was excellent compared to MBS (coefficient of variation: 3.2% vs. 5.9%), although the median analysis time of the AI was longer than that of the operator-dependent MBS method (258 s vs. 171 s). This AI has succeeded in identifying apical LV views and measuring EF in one workflow with comparable results to the MBS method and shows excellent reproducibility. It offers realistic perspectives for fully automated AI-based measurement of LVEF in routine clinical settings.


Original languageEnglish
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2023

External IDs

PubMedCentral PMC10093353
Scopus 85152515694