Sex Differences in Mate Preferences Across 45 Countries: A Large-Scale Replication

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review

Contributors

  • Kathryn V Walter - , University of California at San Francisco (Author)
  • Daniel Conroy-Beam - , University of California at San Francisco (Author)
  • David M Buss - , University of Texas at Austin (Author)
  • Kelly Asao - , University of Texas at Austin (Author)
  • Agnieszka Sorokowska - , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Author)
  • Piotr Sorokowski - , Opole University of Technology (Author)
  • Toivo Aavik - , University of Tartu (Author)
  • Grace Akello - , Gulu University (Author)
  • Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba - , Middle East University (Author)
  • Charlotte Alm - , Stockholm University (Author)
  • Naumana Amjad - , University of the Punjab (Author)
  • Afifa Anjum - , University of the Punjab (Author)
  • Chiemezie S Atama - , American University of Nigeria (Author)
  • Derya Atamtürk Duyar - , Altinbas University (Author)
  • Richard Ayebare - , North Star Alliance (Author)
  • Carlota Batres - , Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster (Author)
  • Mons Bendixen - , Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Author)
  • Aicha Bensafia - , University of Algiers Benyoucef Benkhedda (Author)
  • Boris Bizumic - , Australian National University (Author)
  • Mahmoud Boussena - , University of Algiers Benyoucef Benkhedda (Author)
  • Marina Butovskaya - , Russian Academy of Sciences (Author)
  • Seda Can - , Izmir University of Economics (Author)
  • Katarzyna Cantarero - , SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities (Author)
  • Antonin Carrier - , Psychology Faculty (Center for the Study of Social Behavior) (Author)
  • Hakan Cetinkaya - , Ankara University (Author)
  • Ilona Croy - , Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, TUD Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Rosa María Cueto - , Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Author)
  • Marcin Czub - , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Author)
  • Daria Dronova - , Russian Academy of Sciences (Author)
  • Seda Dural - , Izmir University of Economics (Author)
  • Izzet Duyar - , Altinbas University (Author)
  • Berna Ertugrul - , Cumhuriyet University (Author)
  • Agustín Espinosa - , Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Author)
  • Ignacio Estevan - , Universidad de la República (Author)
  • Carla Sofia Esteves - , Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (Author)
  • Luxi Fang - , Chinese University of Hong Kong (Author)
  • Tomasz Frackowiak - , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Author)
  • Jorge Contreras Garduño - , Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores (Author)
  • Karina Ugalde González - , Latin American University of Science and Technology (ULACIT) (Author)
  • Farida Guemaz - , University of Setif (Author)
  • Petra Gyuris - , University of Pecs (Author)
  • Mária Halamová - , Constantine the Philosopher University (Author)
  • Iskra Herak - , Université catholique de Louvain (Author)
  • Marina Horvat - , University of Maribor (Author)
  • Ivana Hromatko - , University of Zagreb (Author)
  • Chin-Ming Hui - , Chinese University of Hong Kong (Author)
  • Jas Laile Jaafar - , University of Malaya (Author)
  • Feng Jiang - , Central University of Finance and Economics (Author)
  • Konstantinos Kafetsios - , University of Crete (Author)
  • Tina Kavčič - , University of Primorska (Author)
  • Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair - , Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Author)
  • Nicolas Kervyn - , Université catholique de Louvain (Author)
  • Truong Thi Khanh Ha - , Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Author)
  • Imran Ahmed Khilji - , Islamabad Model College for Boys (Author)
  • Nils C Köbis - , University of Amsterdam (Author)
  • Hoang Moc Lan - , Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Author)
  • András Láng - , University of Pecs (Author)
  • Georgina R Lennard - , Australian National University (Author)
  • Ernesto León - , Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (Author)
  • Torun Lindholm - , Stockholm University (Author)
  • Trinh Thi Linh - , Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Author)
  • Giulia Lopez - , Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (Author)
  • Nguyen Van Luot - , Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Author)
  • Alvaro Mailhos - , Universidad de la República (Author)
  • Zoi Manesi - , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) (Author)
  • Rocio Martinez - , University of Granada (Author)
  • Sarah L McKerchar - , Australian National University (Author)
  • Norbert Meskó - , University of Pecs (Author)
  • Girishwar Misra - , University of Delhi (Author)
  • Conal Monaghan - , Australian National University (Author)
  • Emanuel C Mora - , University of Havana (Author)
  • Alba Moya-Garófano - , University of Granada (Author)
  • Bojan Musil - , University of Maribor (Author)
  • Jean Carlos Natividade - , Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (Author)
  • Agnieszka Niemczyk - , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Author)
  • George Nizharadze - , Free University of Tbilisi (Author)
  • Elisabeth Oberzaucher - , University Hospital Vienna (Author)
  • Anna Oleszkiewicz - , Institute of General Psychology, Biopsychology and Methods of Psychology, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Wrocław, TUD Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Mohd Sofian Omar-Fauzee - , University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw (Author)
  • Ike E Onyishi - , American University of Nigeria (Author)
  • Baris Özener - , Altinbas University (Author)
  • Ariela Francesca Pagani - , Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (Author)
  • Vilmante Pakalniskiene - , Vilnius University (Author)
  • Miriam Parise - , Catholic University of the Sacred Heart (Author)
  • Farid Pazhoohi - , University of British Columbia (Author)
  • Annette Pisanski - , University of Havana (Author)
  • Katarzyna Pisanski - , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (Author)
  • Edna Ponciano - , Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Author)
  • Camelia Popa - , Romanian Academy (Author)
  • Pavol Prokop - , Comenius University (Author)
  • Muhammad Rizwan - , Delve Business Network (Author)
  • Mario Sainz - , Universidad de Monterrey (Author)
  • Svjetlana Salkičević - , University of Zagreb (Author)
  • Ruta Sargautyte - , Vilnius University (Author)
  • Ivan Sarmány-Schuller - , Slovak Academy of Sciences (Author)
  • Susanne Schmehl - , University Hospital Vienna (Author)
  • Shivantika Sharad - , University of Delhi (Author)
  • Razi Sultan Siddiqui - , DHA Suffa University (Author)
  • Franco Simonetti - , Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (Author)
  • Stanislava Yordanova Stoyanova - , South-West University Neofit Rilski (Author)
  • Meri Tadinac - , University of Zagreb (Author)
  • Marco Antonio Correa Varella - , Universidade de São Paulo (Author)
  • Christin-Melanie Vauclair - , Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (Author)
  • Luis Diego Vega - , Latin American University of Science and Technology (ULACIT) (Author)
  • Dwi Ajeng Widarini - , University of Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama) (Author)
  • Gyesook Yoo - , Kyung Hee University (Author)
  • Marta Zat'ková - , Constantine the Philosopher University (Author)
  • Maja Zupančič - , University of Ljubljana (Author)

Abstract

Considerable research has examined human mate preferences across cultures, finding universal sex differences in preferences for attractiveness and resources as well as sources of systematic cultural variation. Two competing perspectives-an evolutionary psychological perspective and a biosocial role perspective-offer alternative explanations for these findings. However, the original data on which each perspective relies are decades old, and the literature is fraught with conflicting methods, analyses, results, and conclusions. Using a new 45-country sample (N = 14,399), we attempted to replicate classic studies and test both the evolutionary and biosocial role perspectives. Support for universal sex differences in preferences remains robust: Men, more than women, prefer attractive, young mates, and women, more than men, prefer older mates with financial prospects. Cross-culturally, both sexes have mates closer to their own ages as gender equality increases. Beyond age of partner, neither pathogen prevalence nor gender equality robustly predicted sex differences or preferences across countries.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-423
Number of pages16
JournalPsychological Science
Volume31
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020
Peer-reviewedYes

External IDs

Scopus 85083546673

Keywords