SARS-CoV-2 sero-immunity and quality of life in children and adolescents in relation to infections and vaccinations: the IMMUNEBRIDGE KIDS cross-sectional study, 2022

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • IMMUNEBRIDGE KIDS study group - (Author)
  • Department of Paediatrics
  • University Hospital of Würzburg
  • Institute of Social Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
  • Ruhr University Bochum
  • Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
  • University of Münster
  • Oldenburg University Hospital
  • University of Bonn
  • University Medical Center Göttingen
  • Heidelberg University


PURPOSE: The study evaluates the effects on sero-immunity, health status and quality of life of children and adolescents after the upsurge of the Omicron variant in Germany.

METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study (IMMUNEBRIDGE Kids) was conducted within the German Network University Medicine (NUM) from July to October 2022. SARS-CoV-2- antibodies were measured and data on SARS-CoV-2 infections, vaccinations, health and socioeconomic factors as well as caregiver-reported evaluation on their children's health and psychological status were assessed.

RESULTS: 497 children aged 2-17 years were included. Three groups were analyzed: 183 pre-schoolchildren aged 2-4 years, 176 schoolchildren aged 5-11 years and 138 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Positive antibodies against the S- or N-antigen of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 86.5% of all participants (70.0% [128/183] of pre-schoolchildren, 94.3% of schoolchildren [166/176] and 98.6% of adolescents [136/138]). Among all children, 40.4% (201/497) were vaccinated against COVID-19 (pre-schoolchildren 4.4% [8/183], schoolchildren 44.3% [78/176] and adolescents 83.3% [115/138]). SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was lowest in pre-school. Health status and quality of life reported by the parents were very positive at the time of the survey (Summer 2022).

CONCLUSION: Age-related differences on SARS-CoV-2 sero-immunity could mainly be explained by differences in vaccination rates based on the official German vaccination recommendations as well as differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in the different age groups. Health status and quality of life of almost all children were very good independent of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Registry for Clinical Trials Identifier Würzburg: DRKS00025546 (registration: 11.09.2021), Bochum: DRKS00022434 (registration:07.08.2020), Dresden: DRKS 00022455 (registration: 23.07.2020).


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1531-1539
Number of pages9
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

External IDs

PubMedCentral PMC10243264
Scopus 85161341288


Sustainable Development Goals


  • Adolescent, Child, Humans, Child, Preschool, Quality of Life, SARS-CoV-2, Cross-Sectional Studies, COVID-19/epidemiology, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Antibodies, Viral, Vaccination