Repairing Annulus Fibrosus Fissures Using Methacrylated Gellan Gum Combined with Novel Silk

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Andreas S. Croft - (Author)
  • Slavko Ćorluka - (Author)
  • Janine Fuhrer - (Author)
  • Michael Wöltje - , Chair of Textile Technology (Author)
  • Joana Silva-Correia - (Author)
  • Joaquim M. Oliveira - (Author)
  • Georg F. Erbach - (Author)
  • Rui L. Reis - (Author)
  • Benjamin Gantenbein - (Author)


Intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation often causes severe pain and is frequently associated with the degeneration of the IVD. As the IVD degenerates, more fissures with increasing size appear within the outer region of the IVD, the annulus fibrosus (AF), favoring the initiation and progression of IVD herniation. For this reason, we propose an AF repair approach based on methacrylated gellan gum (GG-MA) and silk fibroin. Therefore, coccygeal bovine IVDs were injured using a biopsy puncher (⌀ 2 mm) and then repaired with 2% GG-MA as a filler material and sealed with an embroidered silk yarn fabric. Then, the IVDs were cultured for 14 days either without any load, static loading, or complex dynamic loading. After 14 days of culture, no significant differences were found between the damaged and repaired IVDs, except for a significant decrease in the IVDs' relative height under dynamic loading. Based on our findings combined with the current literature that focuses on ex vivo AF repair approaches, we conclude that it is likely that the repair approach did not fail but rather insufficient harm was done to the IVD.


Original languageEnglish
Article number3173
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2023

External IDs

unpaywall 10.3390/ma16083173
PubMed 37110008
Scopus 85156177731
WOS 000977000900001
Mendeley f96cc77d-e882-3cb0-afec-ff08deb5d077



  • Annulus fibrosus repair, Complex dynamic loading, Intervertebral disc herniation, Methacrylated gellan gum, Organ culture, Silk fibroin, annulus fibrosus repair, methacrylated gellan gum, organ culture, complex dynamic loading, intervertebral disc herniation, silk fibroin