Relationship among latitude, climate, season and self-reported mood in bipolar disorder

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Michael Bauer - , Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Author)
  • Tasha Glenn - , ChronoRecord Association, Inc. (Author)
  • Paul Grof - , Mood Disorders Center of Ottawa (Author)
  • Natalie L. Rasgon - , Stanford University (Author)
  • Wendy Marsh - , University of Massachusetts Medical School (Author)
  • Kemal Sagduyu - , University of Missouri at Kansas City (Author)
  • Martin Alda - , Dalhousie University (Author)
  • Greg Murray - , Swinburne University of Technology (Author)
  • Danilo Quiroz - , Mood and Anxiety Center Efeso (Author)
  • Yanni Malliaris - , King's College London (KCL) (Author)
  • Johanna Sasse - , University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Author)
  • Maximilian Pilhatsch - , Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden (Author)
  • Peter C. Whybrow - , University of California at Los Angeles (Author)


Objective: Many researchers have analyzed seasonal variation in hospital admissions for bipolar disorder with inconsistent results. We investigated if a seasonal pattern was present in daily self-reported daily mood ratings from patients living in five climate zones in the northern and southern hemispheres. We also investigated the influence of latitude and seasonal climate variables on mood. Method: 360 patients who were receiving treatment as usual recorded mood daily (59,422 total days of data). Both the percentage of days depressed and hypomanic/manic, and the episodes of depression and mania were determined. The observations were provided by patients from different geographic locations in North and South America, Europe and Australia. These data were analyzed for seasonality by climate zone using both a sinusoidal regression and the Gini index. Additionally, the influence of latitude and climate variables on mood was estimated using generalized linear models for each season and month. Results: No seasonality was found in any climate zone by either method. In spite of vastly different weather, neither latitude nor climate variables were associated with mood by season or month. Conclusion: Daily self-reported mood ratings of most patients with bipolar disorder did not show a seasonal pattern. Neither climate nor latitude has a primary influence on the daily mood changes of most patients receiving medication for bipolar disorder.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-157
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009

External IDs

PubMed 19091424
ORCID /0000-0002-2666-859X/work/149438762


Sustainable Development Goals


  • Bipolar disorder, Climate, Latitude, Seasonality