Radiation doses from low-dose CT scans in SPECT/CT and PET/CT examinations: A survey in Germany

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Andreas Rinscheid - , University Hospital Augsburg (Author)
  • Tilman Janzen - , University Hospital Augsburg (Author)
  • Babak Alikhani - , Nuklearmedizinische Klinik (Author)
  • Ambros J. Beer - , Ulm University (Author)
  • Anja Braune - , Department of Nuclear Medicine, TUD Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Nina Eberhardt - , Ulm University (Author)
  • Diana Fechner - , University of Tübingen (Author)
  • Stefan Förster - , Klinikum Bayreuth GmbH (Author)
  • Martin Freesmeyer - , Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Author)
  • Christian Furth - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Michael Grunert - , Ulm University (Author)
  • Dirk Hellwig - , University of Regensburg (Author)
  • Pedro Fragoso Costa - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)
  • Christian Kühnel - , Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Author)
  • Catharina Lange - , Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Author)
  • Rainer Linke - , Skin Cancer Center (Author)
  • Natalia Razlaw - , University of Münster (Author)
  • Tobias Sack - , Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH (Author)
  • Daniel Schmidt - , University of Regensburg (Author)
  • Christina Schütze - , Klinikum Bayreuth GmbH (Author)
  • Alexander Starke - , Nuklearmedizinische Klinik (Author)
  • Liane Tondera - , Gemeinschaftspraxis fur Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin (DIRANUK) (Author)
  • Hermann Wengenmair - , University Hospital Augsburg (Author)
  • Klaus Zöphel - , Klinikum Chemnitz gGmbH (Author)
  • Wolfgang Burchert - , Heart and Diabetes Center Bad Oeynhausen (Author)
  • Constantin Lapa - , University Hospital Augsburg (Author)


Aim Recently, dose reference levels (DRLs) have been defined in Germany for auxiliary low-dose CT scans in hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT examinations, based on data from 2016/17. Here, another survey from 2020 was evaluated and compared with the new DRLs as well as with similar surveys from foreign countries. Methods The survey, which had already been conducted in the Nordic countries, queried for various examinations including the following values: patient weight and height, volume CT dose index (CTDI vol), dose length product (DLP). For each examination, statistical parameters such as the third quartile (Q3) were determined from all submitted CTDI voland DLP values. Additionally, for examinations comprising datasets from at least 10 systems, the third quartile (Q3-Med) of the respective median values of each system was calculated. Q3 and Q3-Med were compared with the newly published DRLs from Germany and values from similar studies from other countries. Results Data from 15 SPECT/CT and 13 PET/CT systems from 15 nuclear medicine departments were collected. For the following examinations datasets from more than 10 systems were submitted: SPECT lung VQ, SPECT bone, SPECT&PET cardiac, PET brain, PET oncology. Especially for examinations of the thorax and heart, the new DRLs are very strict compared to this study. The CTDI volvalues for examinations of the head were lower in this study than the DRLs prescribe now. Conclusions For certain examination types, there is a need for dose optimization at some clinics and devices in order to take into account the new DRLs in Germany in the future.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-300
Number of pages7
JournalNuklearmedizin - NuclearMedicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022

External IDs

PubMed 35388444



  • CTDI, DLP, dose reference levels (DRL), Hybrid imaging

Library keywords