Metabolic alterations have implications in a spectrum of tissue functions and disease. Aided by novel molecular biological and computational tools, our understanding of physiological and pathological processes underpinning endocrine and endocrine-related disease has significantly expanded over the last decade. Herein, we focus on novel metabolomics-related methodologies in adrenal research: in situ metabolomics by mass spectrometry imaging, steroid metabolomics by gas and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, energy pathway metabologenomics by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of Krebs cycle intermediates, and cellular reprogramming to generate functional steroidogenic cells and hence to modulate the steroid metabolome. All four techniques to assess and/or modulate the metabolome in biological systems provide tremendous opportunities to manage neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease of the adrenal glands in the era of precision medicine. In this context, we discuss emerging clinical applications and/or promising metabolic-driven research towards diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers in tumours arising from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia as well as modern approaches to delineate and reprogram adrenal metabolism.
|Number of pages
|Histochemistry and cell biology
|Published - 5 Mar 2019