NaHCO3-induced porous PbI2 enabling efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Driven by their many unique features, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become one of the most promising candidates in the photovoltaic field. Two-step preparation of perovskite film is advantageous for its higher stability and reproducibility compared to the one-step method, which is more suitable for practical application. However, the incomplete conversion of the dense lead iodide (PbI2) layer during the sequential spin-coating of formamidinium/methylammonium (FA+/MA+) organic amine salts severely affect the performance of PSCs. Herein, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is used to induce the formation of porous PbI2, which facilitates the penetration of the FA+/MA+ ions and the formation of a perovskite film with high crystallinity and large grain microstructure. Meanwhile, the introduction of Na+ not only improves the energetic alignment of the PSC, but also increases the conductivity via p-doping. As a result, the optimized NaHCO3-modified PSC achieves a champion power conversion efficiency of 24.0% with suppressed hysteresis. Moreover, the significant reduction in defect density and ion migration as well as a mild alkaline environment enhance the stability of device. The unencapsulated NaHCO3-modified PSCs maintain over 90% of their original efficiency upon storage in ambient air (30%–40% relative humidity) for 2160 h. We have demonstrated an ingenious strategy for controlling the quality of perovskite and improving the performance of device by low-temperature foaming of simple inorganic molecules of NaHCO3. (Figure presented.).


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12431
Number of pages12
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2023

External IDs

WOS 000984460800001


Sustainable Development Goals


  • lead iodide (PbI), perovskite solar cell, porous materials, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO), two-step deposition, Perovskite solar cell, Porous materials, lead iodide (PbI2), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), Two-step deposition