Millimeter Wave Indoor SAR Sensing Assisted With Chipless Tags-Based Self-Localization System: Experimental Evaluation

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Aman Batra - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)
  • Ali Alhaj Abbas - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)
  • Jesus Sanchez-Pastor - , Technische Universität Darmstadt (Author)
  • Mohammed El-Absi - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)
  • Alejandro Jimenez-Saez - , Technische Universität Darmstadt (Author)
  • Maher Khaliel - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)
  • Jan Barowski - , Ruhr University Bochum (Author)
  • Michael Wiemeler - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)
  • Diana Gohringer - , Chair of Adaptive Dynamic Systems (Author)
  • Ilona Rolfes - , Ruhr University Bochum (Author)
  • Rolf Jakoby - , Technische Universität Darmstadt (Author)
  • Thomas Kaiser - , University of Duisburg-Essen (Author)


This article addresses indoor environment mapping by employing the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies. The mmWave-based SAR can provide a high-resolution map, for example, of an emergency scenario like a burning room. The high-resolution map drives a new era of SAR applications such as object detection, classification, characterization, and precise localization. A major requirement at high frequencies is the precise knowledge of SAR trajectory, where radar sensors are mounted on a mobile platform such as a drone or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). State-of-the-art localization methods such as global positioning system (GPS)-aided inertial measurement units (IMUs) are not valid due to limited coverage and accuracy. One of the primary solutions could be the SAR assisted with an indoor localization system, which is exploited in the work. The presented indoor localization system comprises two types of passive chipless frequency-coded tags, based on dielectric resonators (DRs) and frequency-selective surfaces. In this work, first, the proposed method of integrating SAR and localization systems is evaluated in a single-tag environment. Further, a version of a room equipped with a multitag system is considered for real-time applications, and a successful demonstration of indoor environment mapping for the frequency spectrum of 75-110 GHz is presented.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)844-857
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE sensors journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0003-2571-8441/work/159607530



  • High-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR), indoor imaging, mmWave identification, mmWave indoor mapping, passive tag localization, radar imaging