Methods and reference data for middle ear transfer functions

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Human temporal bone specimens are used in experiments measuring the sound transfer of the middle ear, which is the standard method used in the development of active and passive middle ear implants. Statistical analyses of these experiments usually require that the TB samples are representative of the population of non-pathological middle ears. Specifically, this means that the specimens must be mechanically well-characterized. We present an in-depth statistical analysis of 478 data sets of middle ear transfer functions (METFs) from different laboratories. The data sets are preprocessed and various contributions to the variance of the data are evaluated. We then derive a statistical range as a reference against which individual METF measurements may be validated. The range is calculated as the two-sided 95% tolerance interval at audiological frequencies. In addition, the mean and 95% confidence interval of the mean are given as references for assessing the validity of a sample group. Finally, we provide a suggested procedure for measuring METFs using the methods described herein.


Original languageEnglish
Article number17241
Number of pages17
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

External IDs

PubMed 36241675
WOS 000876261700069
ORCID /0000-0003-3215-7507/work/142239349
ORCID /0000-0002-3061-0171/work/142241309
ORCID /0000-0002-7295-4167/work/142250957
ORCID /0000-0003-3894-1175/work/148603712


ASJC Scopus subject areas


  • Age, Gender, Outer, Temporal Bone, Humans, Ear, Middle/surgery, Sound, Ossicular Prosthesis