In anti-doping science, the knowledge of drug metabolism is a prerequisite to identify analytical targets for the detection of misused prohibited substances. As the most obvious way to study xenobiotic metabolism, the administration to human volunteers, faces ethical concerns, there is a need for model systems. In the present study, we investigated whether Oryzias latipes (medaka) embryos might be an alternative, non-animal test model to study human-like metabolism. In the present study, we exposed medaka embryos at the morula stage to the anabolic steroid metandienone (10 µM or 50 µM) for a period of 2 or 8 days. According to the fish embryo toxicity test (OECD test), we assessed the developmental status of the embryos. We further investigated metandienone metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Medaka embryos produced three mono-hydroxylated and one reduced metabolite known from human biotransformation. Developmental malformations were observed for the exposition to 50 µM metandienone, while a significant elevation of the heart beat was also present in those individuals exposed to the lower dose for 8 days. The present study demonstrates that the medaka embryo represents a promising model to study human-like metabolism. Moreover, the judgement of developmental parameters of the fish embryos enables for the simultaneous assessment of toxicity.
|Number of pages
|Archives of toxicology
|Early online date
|30 Mar 2022
|Published - 30 Mar 2022
DFG Classification of Subject Areas according to Review Boards
- Biotransformation, Doping analysis, Fish embryo toxicity, Mass spectrometry, Metandienone, Oryzias latipes, Humans, Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism, Oryzias/metabolism, Animals, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods, Testosterone Congeners, Methandrostenolone/metabolism