Mechanistic insights into the reversible lithium storage in an open porous carbon via metal cluster formation in all solid-state batteries

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Porous carbons are promising anode materials for next generation lithium batteries due to their large lithium storage capacities. However, their highsloping capacity during lithiation and delithiation as well as capacity fading due to intense formation of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) limit their gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Herein we compare a microporous carbide-derived carbon material (MPC) as promising future anode for all solid-state batteries with a commercial high-performance hard carbon anode. The MPC obtains high and reversible lithiation capacities of 1000 mAh g-1carbon in halfcells exhibiting an extended plateau region near 0 V vs. Li/Li+ preferable for full-cell application. The well-defined microporosity of the MPC with a specific surface area of >1500 m2 g-1 combines well with the argyrodite-type electrolyte (Li6PS5Cl) suppressing extensive SEI formation to deliver high coulombic efficiencies. Preliminary full-cell measurements vs. nickel-rich NMC-cathodes (LiNi0.9Co0.05Mn0.05O2) provide a considerably improved average potential of 3.76 V leading to a projected energy density as high as 449 Wh kg-1 and reversible cycling for more than 60 cycles. 7Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was combined with ex-situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering to elucidate the storage mechanism of lithium inside the carbon matrix. The formation of extended quasi-metallic lithium clusters after electrochemical lithiation was revealed.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-335
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022

External IDs

Scopus 85120850245
Mendeley 16788409-eee7-3c88-8b55-70aafcf4a1f0


DFG Classification of Subject Areas according to Review Boards


  • 24 November 2021, All solid -state battery, Microporous carbon, Lithium battery, Anode, Carbide-derived carbon, Lithium cluster, NUCLEAR-MAGNETIC-RESONANCE, CARBIDE-DERIVED CARBON, HARD-CARBON, RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM, ANODE MATERIALS, NANOPOROUS CARBON, LI, INSERTION, POROSITY, SODIUM