Master Production Scheduling with Consideration of Utilization-Dependent Exhaustion and Capacity Load

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



A large number of researchers have addressed social aspects in hierarchical production planning. This article responds to research gaps identified in our previous literature review. Accordingly, consideration of social aspects and the economic implications of social improvements are required in a longer term planning approach. For this, we integrate work intensity as employee utilization in a general mixed-integer programming model for master production scheduling. Following existing fatigue functions, we represent the relationship between work intensity and exhaustion through an employee-utilization-dependent exhaustion function. We account for the economic implications through exhaustion-dependent capacity load factors. We solve our model with a CPLEX standard solver and analyze a case study based on a realistic production system and numerical data. We demonstrate that the consideration of economic implications is necessary to evaluate social improvements. Otherwise, monetary disadvantages are overestimated, and social improvements are, thus, negatively affected. Moreover, from a certain level of work-intensity reduction, demand peaks are smoothed more by pre-production, which requires more core employees, while temporary employment is reduced. Further potential may arise from considering and quantifying other interdependencies, such as employee exhaustion and employee days off. In addition, the relationship between social working conditions and employee turnover can be integrated.


Original languageEnglish
Article number6816
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023