Maßnahmen und Empfehlungen für die Sicherstellung adäquater stationärer Versorgungskapazitäten für das Pandemiemanagement innerhalb einer Region – Ergebnisse eines hybriden Delphi-Verfahrens

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review


  • Ivonne Panchyrz - , Center for Evidence-Based Healthcare (Joint first author)
  • Julia Hoffmann - , Center for Evidence-Based Healthcare (Joint first author)
  • Lorenz Harst - , Center for Evidence-Based Healthcare (Author)
  • Solveig Pohl - , Center for Evidence-Based Healthcare (Author)
  • Michael Bauer - , Jena University Hospital (Author)
  • Sabine Blaschke - , Zentrale Notaufnahme (ZNA) (Author)
  • Marc Bodenstein - , University Medical Center Mainz (Author)
  • Steffen Engelhart - , Institut für Hygiene und Public Health (Author)
  • Barbara Gärtner - , University Hospital of Saarland (Author)
  • Jürgen Graf - , University Hospital Frankfurt (Author)
  • Frank Hanses - , Abteilung für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektiologie (Author)
  • Hanns-Christoph Held - , Department of Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery (Author)
  • Dominik Hinzmann - , Klinikum Rechts der Isar (MRI TUM) (Author)
  • Naseer Khan - , Stabsstelle Zentrales Patientenmanagement (Author)
  • Christian Kleber - , University Hospital Leipzig (Author)
  • Felix Kolibay - , Stabsabteilung Klinikangelegenheiten und Krisenmanagement (Author)
  • Darius Kubulus - , Zentrales OP-Management (ZOPM) (Author)
  • Stefanie Liske - , Stabsstelle Unternehmensentwicklung und Prozessmanagement (Author)
  • Jörg Oberfeld - , Geschäftsbereich Medizinisches Management, University Hospital Münster (Author)
  • Mathias Wilhelm Pletz - , Institut für Infektionsmedizin und Krankenhaushygiene (Author)
  • Stephan Prückner - , Institut für Notfallmedizin und Medizinmanagement (INM) (Author)
  • Gernot Rohde - , University Hospital Frankfurt (Author)
  • Christoph D Spinner - , Klinikum Rechts der Isar (MRI TUM) (Author)
  • Sebastian Stehr - , University Hospital Leipzig (Author)
  • Carsten Willam - , University Hospital at the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (Author)
  • Jochen Schmitt - , Center for Evidence-Based Healthcare (Last author)


INTRODUCTION: Since the beginning of the pandemic in spring 2020, inpatient healthcare has been under enormous burden, which is reflected especially in overworked staff, imprecise bed planning and/or data transfer. According to the recommendation of the Science Council, university clinics should play a controlling role in regional healthcare and act in conjunction with surrounding hospitals and practices.

METHODS: In September 2021, 31 representatives from 18 university hospitals were invited to a hybrid Delphi study with a total of 4 survey rounds to discuss criteria for effective inpatient care in a pandemic situation, which were extracted from previous expert interviews. Criteria that were classified as very important/relevant by≥75% of the participants in the first round of the survey (consensus definition) were then further summarized in 4 different small groups. In a third Delphi round, all participants came together again to discuss the results of the small group discussions. Subsequently, these were prioritized as Optional ("can"), Desirable ("should") or Necessary ("must") recommendations.

RESULTS: Of the invited clinical experts, 21 (67.7%) participated in at least one Delphi round. In an online survey (1st Delphi round), 233 criteria were agreed upon and reduced to 84 criteria for future pandemic management in four thematic small group discussions (2nd Delphi round) and divided into the small groups as follows: "Crisis Management and Crisis Plans" (n=20), "Human Resources Management and Internal Communication" (n=16), "Regional Integration and External Communication" (n=24) and "Capacity Management and Case & Care" (n=24). In the following group discussion (3rd Delphi round), the criteria were further modified and agreed upon by the experts, so that in the end result, there were 23 essential requirements and recommendations for effective inpatient care in a pandemic situation.

CONCLUSION: The results draw attention to key demands of clinical representatives, for example, comprehensive digitization, standardization of processes and better (supra) regional networking in order to be able to guarantee needs-based care even under pandemic conditions. The present consensus recommendations can serve as guidelines for future pandemic management in the inpatient care sector.

Translated title of the contribution
Measures and Recommendations for Ensuring Adequate Inpatient Care Capacities for Pandemic Management within a Region
Results of a Hybrid Delphi Method


Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)1173-1182
Number of pages10
Journal Das Gesundheitswesen : Sozialmedizin, Gesundheits-System-Forschung, medizinischer Dienst, public health, öffentlicher Gesundheitsdienst, Versorgungsforschung
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

External IDs

Scopus 85170045219


Sustainable Development Goals


  • Humans, Delphi Technique, Inpatients, Pandemics, Germany/epidemiology, Surveys and Questionnaires