Magnetic Characterization of the Nugget Microstructure at Resistance Spot Welding

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Conventional resistance spot welds are not visible from the outside. Therefore, it is not straightforward to evaluate the joint quality non-destructively. The pulse-echo method of manual ultrasonic is widely used for non-destructive testing. Another option is the passive magnetic flux density testing, which is being developed at Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. The spot weld is magnetized in the normal direction and the residual magnetic flux density is measured on top of the surface of the joint. This method is suitable for spot welds on typical car body steels. Previous investigations show that the magnetic properties of the materials influence the test result. In order to develop this new non-destructive testing method further, it is necessary to know the magnetic properties of the different microstructure regions of a spot weld. This article focuses on methods to measure and evaluate the magnetic properties of these regions, especially of the base material and the weld. Different measuring methods and approaches are presented and compared with each other. Based on the results, recommendations for future measurements for magnetic characterizations are given.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1512
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2022

External IDs

unpaywall 10.3390/cryst12111512
Scopus 85141821538
Mendeley 6a380874-849b-3d1b-9443-46d9a682e42c
WOS 000883468700001
ORCID /0000-0003-0763-552X/work/142251867



  • ferromagnetic steel, hysteresis loops, magnetic material characterization, non-destructive testing, nugget structure, residual magnetic flux density, resistance spot welding, vibrating sample magnetometer