Latency in Cyber-Physical Systems: The Role of Visual Feedback Delays on Manual Skill Learning

Research output: Contribution to conferencesPaperContributedpeer-review


To inform, guide and optimize the design of cyber-physical systems (CPS), this study examined whether and how delayed visual feedback affects human fine-motor skills. Two experiments are presented, in which participants performed a complex motor task with their hands. During the task, visual feedback was provided on a display with varying delay lengths. Further, to investigate effects of adaptation and transfer, some participants were first exposed to a fixed delay before performing the task with varying delay lengths. Results show that independent of earlier delay exposure feedback delays had detrimental effects on performance, particularly when performance information was lacking and delay length variable. Hand kinematic indicate the use of a strategy geared to a slowing of the movement process. Implications and future research ideas like the application of augmented feedback on movement kinematic and the examination of different settings to promote adaptation effects are discussed.


Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2022

External IDs

RIS 10.1007/978-3-030-85540-6_146
Scopus 85115640515
ORCID /0000-0002-6673-9591/work/142242357



  • Adaptation, Delayed visual feedback, Fine-motor skills, Human-machine interaction, Latency