Largely Pseudocapacitive Two-Dimensional Conjugated Metal-Organic Framework Anodes with Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Localized in Nickel-bis(dithiolene) Linkages

Research output: Contribution to journalResearch articleContributedpeer-review



Although two-dimensional conjugated metal-organic frameworks (2D c-MOFs) provide an ideal platform for precise tailoring of capacitive electrode materials, high-capacitance 2D c-MOFs for non-aqueous supercapacitors remain to be further explored. Herein, we report a novel phthalocyanine-based nickel-bis(dithiolene) (NiS4)-linked 2D c-MOF (denoted as Ni2[CuPcS8]) with outstanding pseudocapacitive properties in 1 M TEABF4/acetonitrile. Each NiS4 linkage is disclosed to reversibly accommodate two electrons, conferring the Ni2[CuPcS8] electrode a two-step Faradic reaction with a record-high specific capacitance among the reported 2D c-MOFs in non-aqueous electrolytes (312 F g-1) and remarkable cycling stability (93.5% after 10,000 cycles). Multiple analyses unveil that the unique electron-storage capability of Ni2[CuPcS8] originates from its localized lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) over the nickel-bis(dithiolene) linkage, which allows the efficient delocalization of the injected electrons throughout the conjugated linkage units without inducing apparent bonding stress. The Ni2[CuPcS8] anode is used to demonstrate an asymmetric supercapacitor device that delivers a high operating voltage of 2.3 V, a maximum energy density of 57.4 Wh kg-1, and ultralong stability over 5000 cycles.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6247-6256
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2023

External IDs

PubMed 36893495
WOS 000956216500001



  • Energy-storage, High-power, Supercapacitors, Electrode, Intercalation, Hydroxide, Chemistry, Mofs