Investigations on the detectability of synthesized electric vehicle sounds-Vehicle operation: Approaching at 10 km/h

Research output: Contribution to book/conference proceedings/anthology/reportConference contributionContributedpeer-review


  • M. Ercan Altinsoy - , Chair of Communication Acoustics, Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Jürgen Landgraf - , Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Margitta Lachmann - , Dresden University of Technology (Author)
  • Matthias Esser - , Daimler AG (Author)
  • Dirk Volkenborn - , Daimler AG (Author)


The timely detection of the vehicles by pedestrians is a prerequisite for road safety. In this study, the traffic condition in which an electric car with sound generator approaches with constant velocity (10 km/h) from the larger distance was investigated. The binaurally recorded sounds of 11 electric cars (with sound generator) and a car with internal combustion engine were presented to the visually impaired, blind and sighted participants. The criteria for the sound selection was to include both sound types, which comply with the minimum sound pressure level requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles (proposed in the notice of proposed rulemaking-NPRM) by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and which don't comply with the sound pressure level requirement. The reaction times of 56 subjects were measured. In the reaction time experiment, the subjects were asked to imagine that they are standing on the curb waiting to cross a one-way street when there may be vehicle approaching. The results show that both sound types; sounds that comply with the minimum sound pressure level requirement and sounds that don't comply with the sound pressure level requirement fulfill the desired detection distance for pass-by operation as proposed in the NPRM by NHTSA requirement.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationForum Acusticum, FA 2014
EditorsBartlomiej Borkowski
PublisherEuropean Acoustics Association, EAA
ISBN (electronic)9788361402282
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Publication series

SeriesProceedings of Forum Acusticum


Title7th Forum Acusticum, FA 2014
Duration7 - 12 September 2014

External IDs

ORCID /0000-0002-0803-8818/work/142257125


ASJC Scopus subject areas